The EU's China challenge: Rethinking offshore wind and electrolysis strategy

copyright: TNO
copyright: TNO
The current and future role of China in the wind energy and electrolyser supply chains

A fast energy transition is essential for Europe to meet its ambitious climate targets. China has a crucial role in many of the key technologies that are essential for the energy transition. Rising geopolitical tensions have highlighted the need to achieve a better understanding of the position of China in key value chains and the geoeconomic risks stemming from China in strategic value chains. The knowledge about the role of China in wind energy and electrolyser value chains is imited in the Netherlands and in the EU. As a result, it is hard to assess the level of risks associated with the central role of China and to formulate policy to mitigate these risks.

The aim of this study is to:
- provide a thorough understanding of the past, current and possible future supply chains of offshore wind energy and electrolysis, with a specific focus on China;
- provide policy recommendations on international cooperation and future organisation of international competition for the supply chains of offshore wind energy and electrolysis

The authors:
TNO: Karlien Sambell, Sam Lamboo, Lennart van der Burg and Piet Warnaar
HCSS: Joris Teer, Abe de Ruijter


TNO, as a trusted, independent, and pioneering applied science and technology organisation, plays a multifaceted role. We innovate, investigate, and orchestrate, collaborating closely with governments, universities and the private sector. We inform government on policies and empower evidence-based decision-making through rigorous investigations, cutting-edge scientific insights, and reliable measurements. By building national and international consortia and ecosystems, we drive technological and methodological breakthroughs that help to realise a secure, sustainable, healthy, and digital society, and strengthen the earning power of the Dutch economy.

The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies

HCSS conducts research and provides advice on geopolitical and defence & security issues to governments, international institutions and businesses. Our research is characterized by a datadriven, multidisciplinary approach, specialist knowledge and a strategic orientation. We combine broad, conceptual knowledge with qualitative and quantitative methods and present our findings in the form of recommendations, strategic explorations and scenario analyses